A chess puzzle, also called a chess composition, is a puzzle using chess pieces on a chess board or in print, that presents the solver with a particular task to be achieved within the boundaries of normal chess rules. (-Wikipedia)
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Example solution -- To the right is a directmate problem composed by T. Taverner in 1881. The key move is Rh1. This is difficult to find because it makes no threat -- instead, it puts black in zugzwang, a situation in which every move leads to a disadvantage, yet the player must move. Each of black's nineteen legal replies allows an immediate mate. For example, if black defends with 1...Bxh7, the d5 square is no longer guarded, and white mates with 2.Nd5#. Or, if black plays 1...Re5, black blocks that escape square for its king allowing 2.Qg4#. Yet if black could only pass (i.e., make no move at all), white would have no way to mate on its second move.